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Nutrition 101 - Glossary - F


Fermented foodsDefinition – Fermented foods and beverages, such as yogurt, kefir and homemade sauerkraut have been transformed by various bacteria, fungi and the enzymes they produce. Relevance - Although long used to preserve foods, fermentation is popular today for its potential health benefits, such as to support gut health.

FlavonoidDefinition - Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic compounds produced by plants that include anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanols, and isoflavones. Relevance - High intakes of flavonoid-rich foods, like fruits and vegetables, have been associated with reductions in cardiovascular disease and reduced risk of other chronic diseases.

FolateDefinition - Folate, or vitamin B9, is a water-soluble vitamin found in dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and animal products. Relevance - Adequate folate intake is critical for women of childbearing age prior to conception and during the first month of pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects; for this reason, the FDA requires food manufacturers to add folic acid to enriched bread, cereal and grain products.

FuranocoumarinsDefinition - Furanocoumarins are chemical compounds produced in grapefruit and other plants that are sometimes toxic. Relevance - In the body, furanocoumarins can  increase the effects of certain drugs by disrupting their metabolism.